State of the Environment - Georgia - Mineral Resources
Mineral Resources of the Country
The Borjomi mineral water and the mining of manganese have traditionally
been the “trademarks” of Georgia’s mineral resources. These and many other
resources were utilized in the country to “feed” the giant industrial machine
of the Soviet economy. Inefficient mining of the variety of minerals are
classical examples of environmental mismanagement. Collapse of economic
system has left the country with huge social problems in “ghost” cities
with dysfunctional industrial complexes.
Relatively small-scale mining sites are still operational and this is
where environmental impacts are experienced and these impacts are expected
to grow further as transitional processes proceed.
There are more then a hundred quarries and sites, which allow to extract:
Among the new and perspective raw materials it is worth mentioning the
mining of lithographic stone and zeolites.
Fossils: oil, gas, coal, peat
Metals: manganese, arsenic, copper, lead,
zinc, iron, silver, gold, etc.
Mining of barite, andesite, bentonite
clay, diatomite, talc, calcite, basalt, etc.
For metallurgy: diatomite, limestone, molds sands.
Ceramics: kaolin, clays, trachyte, rhyolite, pegmatite.
Gem stones: tur quise, agate, onyx, obsidian, gagati, jasper.
Construction and materials: limestone, tuff, marble, basalt, teshenite,
granite, diorite, porpirite, gabro, sand, gravel, cement, gypsum,, etc.
Subsurface waters: fresh water, mineral water, thermal water, medical
Currently efforts are under way to develop relevant approaches to the
management, use and protection of mineral resources:
Enactment of new legislation for the exploitation of mineral resources
Reconstruction and development of infrastructure for the survey, mining
and use of mineral resources
Elaboration of the Policies and strategies for the protection and rational
exploitation of mineral resources.